Comparison of Bubble CPAP Versus Conventional Ventilation in Neonates Having Respiratory Distress
Objective: To compare the outcomes of bubble continuous positive airway pressure (B-CPAP) versus ventilator continuous positive airway pressure (V-CPAP) in neonates experiencing respiratory distress.
Methodology: This randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from March 1, 2021, to August 31, 2021. A total of 150 neonates of both genders who presented with respiratory distress and were delivered at >32 weeks of gestation, weighing >1500 grams. The neonates were then randomly allocated to two groups using a lottery method. Treatment failure was defined as a neonate's inability to maintain a SpO2 greater than 90% or an arterial partial pressure (PaO2) greater than 50 mmHg with a maximal CPAP of >7 cm of water and a FiO2 greater than 0.6 or the necessity of mechanical ventilation.
Results: Of these, 82 (54.7%) were male, and 68 (45.3%) were female, resulting in a male-to-female ratio of 1.2:1. The mean gestational age was 36±2.49 weeks in the B-CPAP group and 35.52±1.36 weeks in the V-CPAP group. The mean birth weight was 2381±506.4 grams in the B-CPAP group and 2187.3±427.49 grams in the V-CPAP group. Out of the 75 neonates in the B-CPAP group, 10 (13.3%) were classified as treatment failures, while 19 (25.3%) out of 75 neonates in the V-CPAP group met the criteria for treatment failure, according to our operational definition. Although the failure rate was slightly higher in patients receiving V-CPAP for the management of respiratory distress, these differences were not statistically significant (p-value= 0.052).
Conclusion: In the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress, there was no significant difference in the failure rate between bubble CPAP and ventilatory CPAP. Regardless of the neonate's gender, birth weight, gestational age, or Silverman score, bubble CPAP may be considered as the primary mode of respiratory support for neonates with respiratory distress.
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